Nevertheless, unification has also brought huge material advantages. Leaving aside the obvious immense benefits of bringing about the downfall of a corrupt, authoritarian regime that would regularly abuse the human rights of its citizens, billion euros had been invested in the eastern regions by the German government by By the end of the century wages were up to 80 per cent of levels in the west, which compares to 55 per cent in Rather than unification being a process of colonization, the west 02 E.
Indeed, with regard to its communications and transport infrastructure, in many cases the east has reached a standard more advanced than anything to be found in the west.
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Furthermore, if we return to some of the evidence cited as proof of the colonization of the east by the west, it is at times possible to use the same evidence to question this thesis. What is noteworthy is not that the THA made mistakes — these were unavoidable given the scale of the operation — but that it actually managed to turn any of the businesses in its charge into viable concerns.
This may have turned out to be problematic for east German business, but there is no doubt that the population at large enjoyed the cash windfalls generated by this political decision, 02 E. Rainer Eppelmann, the conservative east German politician and the head of the first inquiry commission into the historical appraisal of the GDR the Enquete Commission, to be discussed in Chapter 2 , views many of his fellow citizens as no better than spoilt children: The disappointment is as large as the illusions were. And we act like children who have asked for ten Christmas presents, but who have only got five, and cannot enjoy the ones they have because they did not get the others.
As such, rather than constructing east Germans as victims of unification, might it not be 02 E. After all, many commentators point to what they see as the creation of a sense of east German distinctiveness since unification, not so readily found, it is argued, during GDR times. Elisabeth Noelle-Neumann, for example, suggests that in the majority of former GDR citizens saw themselves as first of all German and then east German, but that by the inverse was the case, and indeed continues to be so, as more recent polls have identified.
However, this tended to lead to the defence of aspects of the GDR past. To distinguish between those parts of GDR history which could be defended and those which were worthy of criticism proved difficult … leading to a weakening of the critique of the SED-System. This partial nostalgia was not aimed at bringing the GDR back, it did, nevertheless, undermine critical views. Second, Faulenbach claims that such defiance brings with it a nostalgic re-reading of the GDR.
Although he argues such manifestations of nostalgia do not necessarily point to a wish amongst east Germans to have the SED regime back, they do, he claims, nevertheless undermine honest appraisals of the past, and as such are counterproductive to the present process of integration. Ostalgie, the word commonly used to describe such phenomena, first coined, according to the east German writer Thomas Brussig, in the early s by the Dresden cabaret artist Uwe Steimle, is presented by Faulenbach as nothing more than a form of selective amnesia.
Clearly, it is problematic to see the concept of east and west Germans, or as they are often described in popular discourse Ossis and Wessis, as singular and homogeneous entities. The geographical boundaries at times blur, or, perhaps more accurately, these boundaries are used as a vehicle for political positions that are not necessarily contingent on where an individual is from. Postcolonial Theory in an East German Context It is in connection with our discussion of the east as a discursive space that postcolonial theory becomes a useful analytical device.
However, before we can apply the work of postcolonial theorists to cultural representations of east Germany, there are still a number of potential objections to be addressed. The first objection to the use of postcolonial theory in this context that one might have is semantic. What use is postcolonial theory when east Germany is viewed as currently being colonized by the Federal Republic? This criticism can be answered in a number of ways. First, one might adopt the definition of postcolonial studies given by Bill 02 E. While, as I noted above, Howard argues, albeit for polemical purposes, that east German post-unification distinctiveness can be seen as a form of ethnicity, for most this is an argument too far.
Ultimately, there is nothing ethnically different between Germans on either side of the Elbe. Yet, how far is ethnicity the defining element of postcolonial studies? And for some postcolonial theorists it is, indeed, economic rather than ethnic imbalance that is the key common denominator of colonial encounters.
However, the final utility of postcolonialism for my study does not rest upon whether the socio-economic circumstances in east Germany resemble those of other colonial encounters. What matters is the widespread perception that a process of colonization has taken place, and how this perception has entered culture, both implicitly and explicitly. Thus, to whatever extent the claim of economic colonization might be refuted, postcolonial theory nonetheless provides a useful framework for tracing developments in cultural attitudes towards the east.
In the course of this study we shall see that such theory allows us to identify, for example, what at times might well be viewed as the problematic manipulation of eastern past experience for political purposes, and which perhaps makes understandable the sense of colonization and marginalization some easterners feel. However, it also helps to locate the limits of such perceptions, thereby ultimately offering us a more nuanced image of east-west cultural relations than the metaphor of colonization might at first suggest.
Instead, they are concerned with propping up colonialist feelings of superiority. She sees this in the manner that gender-inflected terms permeated discourses surrounding the events of unification. It was not a union of equals but an eastern accession to the west. While it is undeniable that the Federal Republic was the more democratic, and in this sense the superior of the two systems, as we shall see, in some of the processes discussed we at times find the problematical equation of the GDR with the Nazi dictatorship in order to underline this superiority and thereby to legitimize the expansion of the West German state.
More problematic have been some popular constructions of the east German population itself in orientalist terms. However, we shall further see that this is not the only version of the east in contemporary culture that draws on what can be viewed as an orientalist value system.
In other orientalist cultural representations of the East, however, the relationship between the East and the West is more complex. In the years since unification, it has gradually become clearer that 3 October did not simply mean the expansion of the old FRG, but that both former German states, to a lesser or greater extent, have had to change.
The intellectual left-liberal consensus that dominated West German society since the student movement of the late s has been increasingly eroded, as Germany becomes involved in international military operations and its Social Market Economy is dismantled in the face of globalization. Throughout such eastern cultural representations of the GDR, and the process of unification, a postcolonial theoretical framework also often proves illuminating. Returning for a moment to Said, as important as his work was, he received a good deal of criticism for what has been seen as his Eurocentric perspective.
Rather, the voices of the colonized themselves are given a platform. Here, I point to the variety of methods writers have used to counter what is often seen as an obsession with the role of this organization, in order to find what for them is a more balanced expression of their past experience as east Germans. This is an issue that in recent years has become an important topic for postcolonial theorists and that once again points to connections between postcolonialism and a broader tradition of Marxist critique, such as we find in the work of Ania Loomba.
Thus, theorists have begun to question the view of modernity as part of an enlightenment project driven by a set of universal values. The obvious influence of Marx on Veen takes us beyond a specifically postcolonial context and provides us with a further point of contact with the legacy of the GDR in contemporary society. Modernity, for Veen, is synonymous with the development of capitalism. The citizens of the GDR, although themselves part of a European tradition, were members of a state that was on the front line of the Marxist-Leninist Eastern bloc during the Cold War.
This was a world that, officially at least, had a differing view on the trajectory of modernity to that of the West, one that claimed to provide a bulwark against capitalist expansion. Since unifica- 02 E. Its authoritarian power having now been destroyed, all that remains are those ideals the SED pretended to hold so dear and to instil in the population.
As such, the view of some east German intellectuals and artists in fact comes close to the left-liberal Westalgie of certain western figures, an issue to which we shall return. Indeed, at times we find this ambiguity problematizes the very metaphor of colonization itself. One of the main theorists of hybridity is Homi Bhabha.
However, paradoxically, the process of hybridization described by Bhabha can also lead to the colonizer becoming disconcerted. In his examination of the postcolonial Caribbean, Hall locates two central strands in the politics of identity construction. It belongs to the future as much as to the past.
It is not something which already exists, transcending place, time, history and culture. Cultural identities come from somewhere, have histories. But, like everything which is historical, they undergo constant transformation. For Chioni Moore: 02 E. For Veen, to continue to worry about the state of national unity is a waste of time, distracting public attention away from more important issues, such as the question of economic restructuring, the continuing problem of unemployment or eastern mass migration to the west.
This sense of a broad consensus having been achieved is particularly pronounced in popular culture, most obviously in the use of the World Wide Web observed during my two surveys and discussed in my final chapter. Here we find a continued engagement with the legacy of the GDR, as well as the statement of east German distinctiveness within the unified state.
Instead, authors have a more visceral understanding of an east German cultural heritage, which engages with what it means to have grown up with the GDR as an everyday reality. Unless otherwise stated, all translations are by the author. For further discussion of the continuing economic crisis see Stefan Berg et al. For further discussion of this law see A. For further discussion see Berg et al. Bundesbank figures cited p. Dennis, p. Detjen, p. For further discussion of the THA, as well as the privatization process more generally, see Owen Smith, pp. Owen Smith, p. See Owen Smith, p. In the Allensbach Institute found that this tendency continued.
Sauer, , p. McKay, p. Faulenbach, p. Danks and Paul Kennedy, Basingstoke: Macmillan, , pp. Loomba, p. Edward W. Said, p. Sharp, pp. Beck, , p. Post-Colonial Theory: A Reader, ed. See note Homi K. Emphasis in original. Padmini Mongia, London: Arnold, , pp. Hall, p. Moore, p. Ironically, of course, this policy marked these countries out from the majority of mainland West European states. This was not the case in east Germany, where the population was largely against the war, a 02 E.
This is further confirmed in the most recent statistics published by the Allensbach Institute, where only 8 per cent of east Germans asked claimed they would like to undo unification. This compared with 14 per cent of west Germans. Central to this transformation was the need to come to terms with the GDR past.
Yoder points out, East Germany was very quick in setting about this process. There are a number of obvious reasons why the communist past in Germany was treated differently from that of many other former Easternbloc countries. First, this of course has much to do with German unification, an event that made the GDR unique amongst the post-communist states. As Corey Ross suggests, for example, the Federal Republic had far better resources to fund a public reckoning process than many of its neighbours to the east.
Amongst some academics this raised a number of issues, the most fundamental of which was concerned with the scholarly validity of comparing these two dictatorial regimes. However, in the process, many felt that the everyday experience of the GDR population as a whole was being misrepresented.
The first attempts to deal publicly with the history of the GDR focused on the role of its state security force, the infamous Stasi. In this chapter, I wish to examine two other strands in the state-led process of coming to terms with the past that were intended both to complement, and more importantly to keep in perspective, the focus on the role of the Stasi that so gripped the popular imagination.
Initially, I look at the way the courts dealt with former GDR officials. The examination of the court cases will then provide the context for a discussion of the first Bundestag inquiry, or Enquete Commission into the GDR. However, it was 02 E. In the course of this chapter I hope to show that, as with the description of the process of economic transformation, the claim of colonization in regard to east German history is at times problematic. Nevertheless, it is a view that cannot simply be dismissed, not least due to its impact on the political culture of the unified state.
This, in turn, allowed many former Nazis to be reintegrated into West German society. With unification, the FRG authorities were obliged to fulfil this wish, in order both to help east German integration and to underline the decision to build the unified state on the basis of West German institutions and structures.
But the task was not to prove easy. The first problem that faced the courts was the legal status of the GDR. If this was indeed the case, then dealing with those in power in the East was clear cut. James McAdams, for example, notes that for the proponents of the Unrechtsstaat thesis, members of the GDR establishment could be prosecuted on the same terms as former Nazis.
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Just as the post war authorities rejected the commonly invoked defence that individuals were not guilty because they had simply acted according to the laws of the Third Reich, in the case of the GDR, no one — from Honecker down to the lowliest border guards — could be allowed to excuse or to justify manifest violations of human rights by claiming that they had operated within the law of their land. To allow them to hide their crimes behind the elaborate web of legal fictions that had been created to give the GDR its veneer of legitimacy, these critics felt, would be to make a mockery of the idea of law as it was understood in the West.
First, seeing the GDR as an Unrechtsstaat in the mould of the Third Reich resparked debate on the thorny issue of the status of National Socialist crimes in the German historical record. As I shall discuss in more detail with regard to the Enquete Commission, for some, such comparisons were construed as a cynical political ploy either to underplay and relativize the crimes of National Socialism, or to overstate those of the SED. Nevertheless, the fact remained that many Germans were demanding redress for violations of human rights in the East.
If the newly enlarged Federal Republic was to prove to its new citizens that it was a Rechtsstaat, 02 E. The only way to achieve this, it was decided, was to engage with GDR law, and to examine how far human rights violations could be prosecuted within this context. The first of these trials concerned the death of the last person to be shot attempting to escape over the Berlin Wall — Chris Gueffroy, a twenty-year-old man killed in February As Charles S.
The border-guard trials at times posed more questions about culpability for GDR human-rights violations than they answered, highlighting the 02 E. Amongst the east German population, they also provoked a degree of resentment, with some feeling that the effort focused on bringing the border guards to trial was wrongheaded. The first attempt to bring Honecker to trial had taken place in the immediate aftermath of his ousting by the SED.
In an effort by the Krenz regime to give itself legitimacy with a population demanding reform, it set about investigating abuses of power by the former leader. This later trial attracted massive attention from the world media. It was not every day that a head of state was to be seen in a courtroom. Yet, frustratingly for many, this much-awaited trial came to nothing. Like most of the major figures in the GDR government, Honecker was a frail old man by the time of his return to Germany, having been diagnosed with cancer in Krenz, on the other hand, was convicted and after lengthy appeals started a six-and-a-half year sentence in , being released on parole in December These were particularly controversial.
Erich Mielke, the head of the Stasi and one of the most vilified members of the Politburo, could, initially at least, not be found guilty of any crimes under GDR law. Instead, he was tried and convicted of the murder of two policemen in , a judgement that was partially based on dubious evidence collected by Nazi interrogators and that also saw the Federal authorities stretch to breaking point the statute of limitations.
He was sentenced to six years, but released due to ill health after two. He was, nevertheless, eventually convicted in to three-and-a-half years for the false imprisonment of others, a crime punishable under GDR law. Unsurprisingly, however, the loudest criticisms came from those GDR functionaries who were in the dock. In his only statement during court proceedings, Honecker claimed that his trial was unjust as he could not be held responsible for the set of historical circumstances that brought about the rise of Hitler, the Second World War and the division of Germany.
It could prosecute border guards, but let the real criminals, such as Honecker, go free. In so doing, they were not unusual. Although this can be seen as part of a broader international trend, the immediate reason why there was a call for a tribunal in Germany was closer to home. It seemed to 02 E. Nonetheless, by late there was a growing consensus that there should be some form of constitutionally legitimate body set up to deal officially with the whole legacy of the GDR.
The Enquete Commission is a mechanism that has been used by the Bundestag since to investigate particularly complex issues in order to help inform parliamentary decisions. It consists of members of parliament and external experts who can call upon witness statements and commission research, but it does not have any active decision-making powers.
In the debate on setting up the Enquete in March , although differing opinions were clearly evident, the concept found broad agreement amongst the main political parties. The Commission consisted of sixteen voting Bundestag members, their deputies and eleven external experts. As is usual with such bodies, its constellation reflected the makeup of parliament. The external experts, on the other hand, came from the west German academy. It held forty-four public hearings, thirty-seven private hearings and more than subgroup meetings, summoning hundreds of witnesses from both former states of Germany to testify.
These included its mass organizations, education system, military and the Stasi. The Commission was interested in how these institutions maintained control of the state, looking at their physical means of repression as well as their manipulation of the ideological tenets of Marxism-Leninism and antifascism, upon which the GDR was ostensibly founded. Thus, the remit of this contextualization remained narrow. These consist of the transcripts of all its meetings, parliamentary debates, responses to questionnaires sent to other bodies engaged in GDR research, along with 02 E.
As a body of material these volumes constitute a very useful archive for research into this period of history, offering a variety of views on the GDR past. Here, we are presented with the unambiguous line the government majority took on the evidence with which it was presented.
Any opinion deviating from this line is included in a number of separate minority opinion reports Sondervota , which punctuate the majority findings. Like the Commission itself, its findings cover a wide range of topics. However, here I touch on just a few of these, in order both to suggest the general direction the report took and to highlight areas which subsequently proved problematic for commentators. Although, as the report also makes clear, what these two dictatorships did with power varied drastically, making the point that the GDR neither committed mass murder nor started a world war, it insists that the similarities between them are striking: Both dictatorships were the enemies of open society and consequently of free democracy … Both regimes used modern methods to exert mass influence and mass surveillance; they refused to accept the rights to freedom of opinion and association for dissenters; they made taboo or persecuted all opposition.
The overt use of the past to influence present attitudes is revealed in a number of areas addressed by the report. Unlike the court cases examined above, the Enquete did not need to worry about the details of individual cases. It could, therefore, address broader issues, through which a wide variety of victims could be recognized and the crimes against them, for the official record at least, acknowledged.
In so doing, the Committee hoped to begin a widespread process of reconciliation that would help these victims to overcome their past and to integrate into unified Germany. Along with the need to acknowledge the victims, the report also sees a need to apportion blame. The report argues that in 02 E. People guilty of complicity with National Socialism would even deliberately be given key positions, while conversely, those who had been persecuted under National Socialism were in no way safe from persecution in the Soviet Zone of Occupation or the GDR. The central thrust of the majority report is the de-legitimization of the GDR regime.
Along with this de-legitimization comes a concomitant legitimization of the FRG. This is shown particularly clearly in its discussion of inter-German relations during the Cold War. These included individuals who were active in dissident organizations, however loosely defined, many of which, as already mentioned, were involved with the Protestant Church.
Nevertheless, the actions of individual activists are praised. In sum, therefore, the report paints the GDR as an aberration of history. It sees it now as the job of all Germans, from the 02 E. A good deal of the specific detail of its findings is also beyond historical doubt. However, its broader portrayal of the GDR as a totalitarian state, as well as the relationship of this state to the National Socialist period did provoke criticism.
It should be noted that the first place where potential points of criticism are raised is within the report itself. In its final remarks the authors insist that, due to the limitations of time, its findings can only be provisional and that much more detailed research is required into the areas the committee explored.
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Indeed, it admits, some of the areas originally selected for examination for example the role of the military were hardly addressed. However, it also claims that it was never its aim to write an official history of the GDR. This is not the job for the Bundestag but for academics. Nevertheless, the caveats built into the report were not enough to assuage some commentators and public figures in their view that in the Enquete, as in the trials, history was being rewritten by the victors of the Cold War to expedite a process of cultural colonization, to consolidate the economic colonization discussed in the previous chapter.
Later in the chapter I will examine some of the political repercussions of the report. For some this shift was a welcome corrective, allowing a broader plurality of critical positions than were available in the previous two decades, which had been dominated by the left-liberal consensus identified by Fulbrook above.
Some of these will be discussed in my examination of the legacy of the Stasi in the following chapter. However, of importance to the present discussion was the usefulness of the totalitarian model for the consolidation of a unified FRG. By constructing an absolutist, totalitarian image of the GDR, such 02 E. On a political level this is an understandable project.
Of course, as the report makes clear, comparing two things does not necessarily suggest that they are the same. Fritz Klein, for example, suggests That comparison does not mean equivalence is always emphasized, and if one looks at it logically, this is self-evident. But this fact is easily lost in everyday discussion amongst people who as a rule do not make judgements according to abstract logic but who are rather influenced by opinions and prejudices.
First, such comparisons ran the risk of relativizing the obviously worse crimes of National Socialism. Of course, not as a visible reality. Rather than the Commission seeking to overcome the feared potential links between the GDR and its Nazi pre-history, it appeared to some that it was more intent upon overstating and confirming these links for present political gain. Moreover, as I suggested in the introduction to this chapter, it was not just the report that appeared to be intent upon creating an equivalence between National Socialism and the GDR in order to put this whole past to rest, or to over-emphasize the crimes of the latter for current political effect.
This tendency was equally evident, some argued, in the official attitude to the GDR in its memorial culture more generally. Critics pointed, for example, to the renaming of streets in the early s, during 02 E. Much of this criticism, it must be said, is overstated. Thus, the impression is created that National Socialism and communism form a single body, dominating the twentieth century. In actuality, high-level continuities were relatively unusual in the GDR. In the FRG, on the other hand, they were a far more common occurrence. Yet the museum makes only cursory reference to this fact.
That said, this was also a government for which the east German population in had voted in droves. And, just as the majority report is shaped 02 E. Moreover, it is not just the majority report that claims this. As Peter Barker notes, most of the party was sceptical of its intentions, preferring, unlike any of the other parties, to draw a line under the GDR period. His critical evaluation of the structures of power in the SED were highly controversial within the PDS, leading to his effective de-selection for the General Election.
It was indignant that the GDR could be dismissed as 02 E. If these people do not find their history and their stories, their normality … in the history that is written and the value judgements of the ruling political class, then the latter has failed. First, it accepts the limitations of the GDR state.
Interestingly here, however, while the party accepts responsibility for its history, it also seems to suggest that responsibility for the crimes carried out in the name of the GDR ultimately lay at the door of the Soviet dictator and not the SED. This is an important change of focus since it potentially provides a far wider point of identification for the former GDR population, accommodating people who do not fit neatly into the black and white totalitarian model seen in the rest of the report.
As Peter Christian Segall et al. Thus the party feeds the perception that the report is seeking to de-legitimize not only the SED regime, but also the lived experience of the GDR population. On the one hand, we have an ideological view of the GDR as a progressive socialist state.
However, the problem the PDS faced was that it was also directly implicated in the corruption of this agenda. This is an early reference to the controversial phenomenon of Ostalgie that would come to dominate debates on dealing with the GDR from the mid to late s, and to which we shall return at length in subsequent chapters.
Here the party 02 E. This is an issue that has become particularly central to popular debates on the GDR in recent years. Even more curious was the fact that a party which — to whatever limited extent — was defending the record of a regime that the vast majority of the population in the east were very glad to see the back of, could now portray itself as the only authentic voice of that same population. For much of the political mainstream the continued existence of the PDS in the s was an extremely worrying development.
Ironically, however, the more other parties attempted to discredit the PDS by making a connection between it and the SED, the more the party seemed to be able to capitalize on this very point of identification. To be sure, in the and elections this strategy was successful. In the PDS nearly doubled its national vote 4.
In it went further to clear the hurdle of 5 per cent of the national vote and to enter the Bundestag as a full Bundestagsfraktion. On a regional level it has had even more success, establishing itself as the third most important power in the east, and forming coalition governments with the SPD in Mecklenburg Western-Pomerania in and Berlin in However, just eleven months after its success in Berlin, when one in two east Berliners voted for the party, it failed to achieve the 5 per cent hurdle in the national election and so was not returned to the Bundestag.
One of the key issues in the run up to the election was the proposed US-led invasion of Iraq. More recently, the PDS has once again achieved electoral success, this 02 E. In the west too, as in much of the rest of Europe, there was widespread popular protest against the war. Consequently, we might identify here not only feelings of the type of Ostalgie instrumentalized by the PDS, but also a type of political Westalgie for the position of the old FRG, mentioned in the previous chapter. Unlike the old FRG, the eastern electorate exhibits a high level of volatility in its voting patterns, acting more in response to short-term societal circumstances than to traditional party affiliations determined by social class or religion.
Throughout the state-led processes of dealing with the GDR outlined here orientalist perceptions pervade. Although it should not be forgotten that the impetus for these state-led processes came mainly from the east, the former GDR population widely felt that they were ultimately highjacked by western-dominated elites that were happy to run roughshod over eastern past experiences, at best manipulating them for present political gain, at worse eliding them from the historical record. Although its findings were highly revealing of certain political agendas, 02 E. To a degree, this tried to learn from the mistakes of the first.
It is not surprising, then, that the PDS continued to be vocal in its condemnation of the second Commission. However, this criticism could now be largely ignored because the committee of the second Commission was far smaller than the first, and excluded the PDS as a voting member. While one might be cynical of the motivations of some PDS members, the party clearly hit a nerve amongst elements of the east German population, giving voice to a widespread feeling of marginalization and, as I shall discuss in the following chapter, it was not just political culture that was conditioned in the early s by such reactions to what was deemed by some to be the misrepresentation of East German history.
Jennifer A. The only other partially equivalent cases in this respect are Croatia, Hungary and Romania, which also had for a time semi-autonomous fascist regimes. In the following legislative period there was a second commission. Yoder, pp. For further discussion see McAdams, p. Quoted in McAdams, p. Charles S. McAdams, p. Meier, pp. Yoder, p. Such a division runs the risk of absolving parts of the organization from the culpability of the whole.
The Ministry for State Security was a highly structured institution and its various subsections worked closely with one another. Maier, p. For a comparative study of a number of various truth commissions see Truth v. Justice: The Morality of Truth Commissions, ed. Berlin: Aufbau, One of the most memorable moments of this debate was the speech by Willy Brandt, the architect of the new Ostpolitik in the late s, which saw the FRG eventually recognize the GDR in Defining what constituted oppositional behaviour in the GDR remains a thorny issue for scholars.
This problem is clearly reflected in much of the commissioned research for the Enquete. Ross, p. For further discussion see Ross, p. Konrad H. Quoted in Beckmann, p. Niven, p. See also Niven, pp. Quoted in Kutter, p. Kutter, p. Urs Schoettli, quoted in Kutter, p. Faulenbach, in Barker, p. Uwe-Jens Heuer was a PDS member of the Bundestag who was one of the most vocal in his rejection of cooperation in the official process of the historical appraisal of the GDR. See Barker, p. Amsterdam: Rodopi, Hough, p. For further discussion see Grix, pp. One major achievement of the second commission which should be noted, was the setting up of Foundation for working through the SED-Dictatorship, which provides invaluable funding for ongoing research projects.
Amongst some east Germans, this led to a perception that mainstream readings of history were misrepresenting the actual experience of life in the GDR — a perception that had a profound effect on post-unification political culture. If we move now from political to aesthetic, literary culture, orientalist uses of the past similarly shape responses to the process of unification. In this chapter I wish to exame how literary representations of this organization have developed over time.
However, gradually it is possible to locate a shift away from victim narratives to texts that explore the position of those who perpetrated Stasi abuses of civil and human rights. Yet, what might initially be viewed as a knee-jerk, defiant, reaction to western stereotyping is at times better understood as part of a more sophisticated, reflective trend through which authors endeavour to locate a more authentic representation of east German experience than they find in many mainstream discourses.
So far, I have painted my examination of literary responses wholly in eastern and western terms. Indeed, the influence of the Stasi on contemporary life did not stop at the borders of the GDR, but was also felt on the political life of West Germany, when surveillance tapes made by the MfS were cited as showing that the former Chancellor Helmut Kohl had received illegal funds for his party.
It was not only the political sphere that was rocked by Stasi scandals. That the Stasi should have been so exercised by the activities of writers in the East reflects the special status of the arts within the Eastern bloc. Never losing faith in the ideals of socialism, such writers nonetheless believed that it was their responsibility to try to reform the GDR from within, in order to turn it into a truly democratic socialist state. As this group began to publish in the s, it was viewed by the Western media as representing new hope for the GDR.
Its work was greeted as a truly autonomous, democratic form of literature that offered a radical challenge to the draconian cultural politics of the SED. The publication of the story caused uproar among certain western critics, condemned, for example, by Frank Schirrmacher and Ulrich Greiner who interpreted its delayed publication as an attempt by Wolf, a writer who had enjoyed many privileges under the SED, to redefine herself as a GDR dissident.
It should be mentioned, however, that throughout their attacks such critics ignored the fact that, far from being a moment of redefinition, the text was largely a continuation of the exploration of the aesthetic and political positions Wolf had held since the s. During the Cold War, it was argued, GDR writers had always been given a special status due to the conditions under which they were writing.
Now that these conditions no longer held, their work should be judged according to purely artistic criteria — criteria that, it would seem, many of their texts could not meet. The hatchet job that began with the Literaturstreit then gained momentum as rumours began to surface about the extent to which the Stasi had infiltrated artistic life in the GDR. As the MfS documents started to be 02 E. The German press regularly reported on the substantial files the MfS had collected on a huge number of GDR writers, both on those who worked within official state structures and on those who wrote and published in the underground cultural scene.
Like the judicial processes, discussed in the previous chapter, responsibility for the files passed to the Bonn government after unification. However, as with the other processes of historical reappraisal, Fulbrook notes that using the newly available information in this manner was ultimately reductive: 02 E. On the other, the influence of the Stasi on oppositional activity however tentative was often deemed to undermine completely the validity that such activity may have played in questioning, and ultimately bringing down, the government.
As a result of this, many of the writers were unwittingly bound back into structures they thought they had freed themselves from. It is beyond question that the Stasi was a manifestation of an oppressive state system, which had a hugely destructive effect on many individuals, breaking up families, causing untold psychological damage and in some cases even death.
Nevertheless, the fact remains that in the early s the role of the Stasi was the overriding focus of popular readings of GDR history, a focus that moreover appeared to be skewing views of the past. Questions of individual and collective guilt vanished before the overwhelming and evil divinity of the Stasi. It was, rather, simply turning former victims into a new type of perpetrator in a witch hunt for justice that was under- 02 E.
Moreover, it would appear that the Stasi did not intend to stop its operation against Kunze when he left for the West.
That the Stasi was interested in Kunze was clearly understood by him and his circle of friends at the time. Yet, it is also clear from the text that Kunze was not aware of the full magnitude of the Stasi operation against him until after the Wende. Yet, it is far from unique and can be seen as typical of many early post-Wende accounts of life in the GDR, such as those discussed in the previous chapter where we also find a degree continuity between the Third Reich and the GDR.
Indeed, whenever a shade of grey enters the narrative it is immediately dispelled. We then subsequently learn that the man proves himself to be unsuitable for use as an informant D, Similarly, with regard to those who do cooperate with the organization, such as the professor, there is never 02 E. Thus any sense of moral ambiguity such situations could have given rise to need not be addressed. Another potentially problematic area of the text is the status of the Stasi files as a truthful representation of the past.
Other commentators, such as Joachim Walther, also emphasize the verisimilitude of the files, suggesting that the Stasi insisted on cross-referencing all reports to ensure that their informants did not lie. Nevertheless, Kunze himself points elsewhere to the fact that there is also a good deal of unreliable information in the reports.
It would appear that, particularly with regard to the files on specific victims, certain informants wrote what they thought their superiors wanted to read. Nonetheless, it meticulously made copies of all the poems he sent out of the GDR by post. In the play the thoroughness of the Stasi is held up to ridicule. The Stasi has nothing of interest to report. As a result, its surveillance officers are forced to give banal details in the desperate attempt to find something to write about.
The letterbox of the object person is fastened with an iron chain and a simple padlock. On the right-hand side one finds the electricity meters for the whole building. These are visible through a piece of glass. The information the Stasi receives from its operatives is hardly enlightening.
Michael Haase notes that the term normally recalls the dynamic, productive and open-ended nature of literary writing encapsulated in the work of figures such as Lessing or Jean Paul, figures who were products of the eighteenth-century philosophical tradition to which the term gives its name. The poem then fades out to be replaced by the voice of an actor reading one of his Stasi reports, a report that appears far more comprehensible to the listener than the earlier poem.
However, as the play develops the very notion of comprehension is itself ironized. His is a living, bodily language through which he attempts to reflect actual experience.
There could be several reasons for this. Most importantly, the nature of the surveillance operation carried out on Scherstjanoi was different from that of Kunze. Kunze was the victim of a full-blown Operativen Vorgang 02 E. On the contrary, the Stasi is presented as an appallingly sick joke. That is, we see writers willingly inhabit the space allocated them by what they consider to be the colonizing power of a western hegemony.
But, in adopting this stance, such texts ultimately challenge, through parody, what they view as a reductive reading of history, demanding instead a more differentiated approach to the past. Again, if we adopt the language 02 E. However, the defiant appropriation of a hybrid position can also actually go beyond being a mechanism to question popular views of the GDR as a Stasi state. In the text by Thomas Brussig, discussed below, for example, the writer, whose wrath knows no bounds, uses this position not only as a means of challenging what he sees as limited western views, but also as a self-reflexive mechanism through which he can interrogate the views of his fellow east Germans.
In other texts, we find authors adopting a more conciliatory tone. On the one hand, we see writers calling for a process of reconciliation between those who lived on either sides of the power equation in the GDR. Shocked by the size of his member, the guards are stunned into silence and so are unable to hold the crowds back from passing into the West. From this brief plot synopsis, it is obvious that the novel is not to be taken at face value, but is rather, on one level at least, a sustained satire 02 E. Klaus tells his story to the New York Times reporter Mr.
As such, the text can be read as an ironic response to the predominant view of the GDR at the time, its overthe-top conformation of the centrality of the Stasi to life in the GDR ironically questioning such readings of the past. His humorous description of Klaus and his fellow officers was seen by some as a trivialization of its activities. The satirical appropriation of a hybrid position adopted in the text to question the perceived instrumentalization of the GDR, consequently, therefore, also confirms the oppressive nature of the life under the SED.
In so doing, the text attacks what its author sees as equally worrying mis-readings of the past by east Germans. This is shown most obviously in the distance between the author and his somewhat unreliable narrator. In telling his story, the banal Monty-Python-like image of the Stasi Klaus describes fails to hide the distortion of socialism that brought about the need for its existence and for his own collaboration with it. Klaus is shown to be wholly a product of the environment in which he grew up. As a child he looks at a series of maps in his atlas, which trace the course of world history.
His mother is a prude 02 E. Her attitude leads Klaus to perceive all manifestations of sexual activity as filthy. Unfortunately, Klaus finds it impossible to suppress his own sexual thoughts, and instead becomes fixated on the idea of sex. This search for conformity and acceptance eventually brings him to the door of the MfS. His father is a forbidding figure who dismisses the narrator as a failure H, While it transpires that the man is, in fact, also a Stasi officer, his domestic stance towards Klaus is not reflective of those members of the organization with whom Klaus has to deal professionally.
His sense of belonging and the matter-of-fact narration of his work starts to jar as we learn, for example, of the house searches he would take part in, where the aim of the exercise was not to find evidence but rather to let the occupant know that they had been 02 E. Although he himself attempts to present this in innocuous terms, claiming that he gained the greatest satisfaction out of preventing her from winning at Ludo H, , this cannot conceal the cruelty of such state-sanctioned kidnaps.
Klaus is convinced that he is destined for higher things in the service of his country, dismissing his sordid activities as necessary for the greater good of socialism, and refusing to accept any individual responsibility for them: Someone had plans for me … I was certain that I only had to do what I was told, and beyond that I had no power whatsoever. I was waiting, and nothing that I would do during this time was intended or wanted by me.
I was not the person who committed break-ins, who kidnapped, who persecuted, who made other people insecure, who created fear. I was just waiting. The text is a call to east Germans to examine honestly all aspects of their past, and their own compliance with the state, whatever form this may have taken. It is ultimately the decadent, inhuman GDR state, encapsulated in the figure of Klaus, that destroyed itself, the perversion at the heart of the GDR eventually leading the state to implode. At this point, the satirical tone of the text tends to give way to polemic.
Furthermore, as we have seen, while Klaus is scathing about the GDR, the west fares no better, and towards the end of the novel it is this target that finally, once again, takes centre stage. However, as well as rejecting western attitudes towards the east, Brussig also uses these same attitudes to critique his own east German society, and in particular its views of the past. Through both the work of his literary models and the texts he himself creates, he attempts to transfigure the banality of his daily life into art, and thus to find a less limited sense of identity than the one afforded him as a worker.
His activities attract the attention of the MfS, who coerce M. For example, in order to force M. The reason why M. Both the informant and the writer, as observers of their environment, are pushed to the margins of their world. It is through the written text that the MfS validates the version of reality it chooses to create. The contact demands that he enter into a written agreement with the MfS by signing a declaration of paternity I, Indeed, they begin to suspect that he is writing about them before he ever becomes an IM I, Specifically, M.
As Martin Kane points out, whilst the narrator finds it difficult to write literary texts, he discovers a great sense of satisfaction in the Stasi reports he writes. However, gradually M. He grows dissatisfied with his role as an IM, finding it progressively harder to maintain any 02 E. While in the office of his handler, Feuerbach, M. He then proceeds to explain what fascinates him about these lines: what interested me about these lines was the monstrous nature of their stream of abstraction. I, 23 The action being described is suffocated in a monstrous string of genitives until it is beyond all recognition.
In reading this report, M. It is a language that obfuscates and confines experience, rather than defining and communicating it. Here we might be forgiven for thinking that the Stasi officier is echoing his more famous namesake, the philosopher Ludwig Feuerbach and his call for a materialist view of the world, based on a enlightened humanist prioritization of the needs of the individual. Such critics accused him of giving an inaccurate account of life in the Prenzlauer Berg scene in an attempt to capitalize on the topicality of the subject-matter.
In his earlier pre-Wende texts, Hilbig adopts the narrative personae of those who were excluded from the official discourse of the GDR in order to examine the position of the writer as outsider and the problem of artistic production. In so doing, the author uses this perspective as a vehicle for a critique of the East German state, the voices of those the state declared criminal providing him with a means of attacking its self-declared utopian status.
This position was subsequently confirmed in later novels such as Das Provisorium. Although the narrative stance Hilbig adopts initially seems to confirm this dismissive view, he in fact forces his reader to explore ambiguities in the relationship between the individual and the SED dictator- 02 E. As we have already seen, we are shown how M. Marianne never feels comfortable in this new environment because its inhabitants have little understanding of her past experience, east Germany being almost a foreign country to them.
This leads her to take the drastic, if somewhat curious, step of relating a false story to another guest about her involvement with the Stasi as an IM, a story which completely dumbfounds its recipient. Crucially for Lewis, the perpetrator role allows her actively to escape that of passive recipient of a western version of history. Although the word implicates the narrator in this attack, and as we have seen at times he spares neither himself nor his generation from his scorn, nevertheless, the superciliousness tone of the novel largely puts the emphasis on the rest of the east German community, which, unlike him, needs to be brought down to earth and reminded of the reality of the Wende.
Grass was one of the most vociferous west German intellectuals to defend Wolf during the Literaturstreit. In Ein weites Feld he rejects any call for writers to withdraw from public debate. On the contrary, he presents an extended literary intervention in this very debate, examining what he sees as the problematic, yet important, relationship between German writers and the state since at least the nineteenth century. Like many of his contemporaries in the east, Grass was very sceptical of unification, and in the novel he concurs with these same intellectuals in his presentation of the GDR as having been swallowed by a western colonial power W, This has two interesting implications for the rest of this present study, both of which will be addressed in more detail in the next chapter.
Second, the novel takes place almost entirely in the east. Since the Stasi files have been opened, however, there have also been publications by, and about, those who actually cooperated with the Stasi. After her little sister is taken away, her younger brother disappears. Using forged papers and her fair features, Chaya becomes a courier and travels between the Jewish ghettos of Poland, smuggling food, papers, and even people. Magdalys Roca and her friends from the Colored Orphan Asylum are on a field trip when the Draft Riots break out, and a number of their fellow orphans are kidnapped by an evil magistrate, Richard Riker.
Edmund has fae powers, but lives in secret as a changeling in the World Above. The Childe lives among the fae in the World Below, where being human makes him an oddity at the royal palace, and where his only friend is a wax golem named Whick. When the cruel sorceress Hawthorne takes the throne, the Childe and Edmund need to act. Mikayla is a wrestler. Some people object to having a girl on the team. Lev is determined to make it to the state championships. Mikayla and Lev work hard together and become friends. But when they face each other, only one of them can win. The word itself means different things—wild?
Thirty-three writers, athletes, and artists offer essays, lists, comics, and illustrations that explore their personal experiences with mental illness, how we do and do not talk about mental health. A white girl coming of age in a repressive society: Tena was born in in a tiny Mississippi town where the legacy of slavery and racial injustice still permeated every aspect of life. Her father was one of the richest men in the state; her mother was a regal beauty. The family lived on a sprawling farm and had the only swimming pool in town; Tena was given her first car—a royal blue Camaro—at twelve.
Sara can feel their friendship slipping away. The divide has created much tension between Hindus and Muslims, and hundreds of thousands are killed crossing borders. Jilly has to learn to be an ally, a sister, and a friend, understanding that life works in different ways for different people, and that being open to change can make you change in the best possible ways.
Am Soll mein Buch in dieser Ecke der Buchhandlung liegen? Ich las YA — um mich zu positionieren und, weil mir die Sparte schnell ans Herz wuchs. Sprachlich und psychologisch weniger komplex. Beides: oft sexistisch, abgedroschen, klischiert. Mein Erfahrungswert: Je hauptberuflicher, desto ambitionierter und intelligenter ist das Jugendbuch. Genug Tiefgang und eine intelligente Grundfrage — Wie weit kann man gehen, um jemandem zu helfen, der sagt, er brauche keine Hilfe?
Und ginge tiefer. Solche Fragen interessieren Erna Majewski, Sie besucht eine Gemeinschaftsschule und lebt, wie ihre Freundinnen Liv und Rosalie, im gemeinschaftlichen Wohnprojekt. So eine Gemeinheit! Und sie findet heraus, was passiert ist. Aber soll sie es auch verraten? Und wer kann die schon ertragen? Zieht aus! Tut irgendwas und zieht es durch! Das macht ihr Buch so dringlich, intensiv, klug. Jensi hat West-Verwandtschaft: Er darf nach Hamburg ausreisen. Andreas wird vom Vater geschlagen. Er rebelliert, landet im Jugendwerkhof und versucht, sich umzubringen. Hanna, die als Sportlerin aussortiert wurde, trainiert in der Schwimmhalle.
Auch, weil sie glaubt, dass Andreas unvorbereitet und schwach ist, und ohne sie sterben wird. Alle ca. Eine sehr erwachsene, oft rhythmische Sprache. Ein actionreiches, beklemmendes, oft erwachsen-unsentimentales Buch — ambitioniert, literarisch auf hohem Niveau. Die beiden Freundinnen sind sich einig: Sie wollen handeln. Denn Ali ist stark, fair und einfach unbesiegbar. Ganz anders als Vater. Der buckelt nach oben und tritt nach unten. Unten, da stehen Magdi und seine drei Geschwister. Und Mutter. Und wenn sie nicht besser sind, dann hilft Vater nach.
Ein Tick zu kurz, zu schlicht. Geschwister, Nebenfiguren bleiben kaum genutzt. Realistisch, dass die Familie in ihrer Dynamik bleibt. Oft sind dann auch Portemonnaies, Skateboards oder anderes Zeugs verschwunden. Niks ist fasziniert von Charlies Talent. Stilistisch, sprachlich klappt es kaum: Tanya Lieske benutzt viele Floskeln und Sprachbilder aus den ca. Viel Action. Ihrem nerdigen Kumpel Boyd eine echte Freundin sein. Kinostart der Verfilmung: 5. April Julian lebt bei seinem Onkel, mit Geheimnissen und einem Koffer voller Erinnerungen. Doch es ist schwer, Vertrauen zu fassen. Je mehr Vertrauen Julian fasst, desto mehr kommt Adam hinter seine Geheimnisse.
Eine kleine Gruppe von Menschen, die in einem Boot auf offener See treiben, teilen miteinander ihre Lebensgeschichten. Ich fand keine Leseprobe. Daniel, 13, hofft, dass niemand seine komischen Angewohnheiten bemerkt — weder die Familie noch sein bester Freund Max, und schon gar nicht seine Traumfrau Raya. Die beiden gehen auf dieselbe Schule und tauschen seit Monaten E-Mails aus. Juni in deutsche Kinos. Ten years later, Jude wants nothing more than to belong there, despite her mortality. But many of the fey despise humans. Especially Prince Cardan, the youngest and wickedest son of the High King.
To win a place at the Court, she must defy him—and face the consequences. In doing so, she becomes embroiled in palace intrigues and deceptions, discovering her own capacity for bloodshed. But as civil war threatens to drown the Courts of Faerie, Jude will need to risk her life in a dangerous alliance to save her sisters, and Faerie itself. Ihre Eltern scheinen nicht mehr sie selbst zu sein. Erna ist 11, besucht eine Gemeinschaftsschule und lebt, wie ihre Freundinnen Liv und Rosalie, im gemeinschaftlichen Wohnprojekt. Erna ermittelt. Sie findet heraus, was passiert ist. Doch soll sie es auch verraten?
Doch eines Tages macht Kasimir eine schockierende Entdeckung: Fleur hat sich ihn ausgedacht! Mit dem Wunsch, ein echter Junge zu werden, begibt sich Kasimir auf eine lange Reise. Assistant lighting director Eli Vasquez, a girl made of tattoos and abrupt laughs and every form of light, looks at Zara. Two girls, finding each other on a stage set for tragedy. Doch am Ende finden die drei nicht nur zueinander, sondern auch zu sich selbst. Ten years later, he has lived with the guilt and horror for his entire life. With his best friend away for the summer, Sebastian has only a new friend—Aneesa—to distract him from his darkest thoughts.
But even this relationship cannot blunt the pain of his past. Because Sebastian knows exactly how to rectify his childhood crime and sanctify his past. It took a gun to get him into this.
Illustrator Christoph Niemann über den Umgang mit Kunden
Now he needs a gun to get out. They spent countless days dreaming of escaping their small town—and then Tommy vanished. More accurately, he ceased to exist, erased from the minds and memories of everyone who knew him. Everyone except Ozzie. When Ozzie is paired up with new student Calvin on a physics project, he begins to wonder if Calvin could somehow be involved.
But the more time they spend together, the harder it is for him to deny the feelings developing between them, even if he still loves Tommy. So when she receives an invitation from her childhood friend to leave her small town and tour art schools on the west coast, Kiko jumps at the opportunity in spite of the anxieties and fears that attempt to hold her back. And now that she is finally free to be her own person outside the constricting walls of her home life, Kiko learns life-changing truths about herself, her past, and how to be brave.
Writing in a dictionary format, Macy explains the world in her own terms. Grace Salter is the new girl in town, whose family was run out of their former community after her southern Baptist preacher mom turned into a radical liberal after falling off a horse and bumping her head. Rosina Suarez is the queer punk girl in a conservative Mexican immigrant family. They form an anonymous group of girls at Prescott High to resist the sexist culture at their school. Told in alternating perspectives, this groundbreaking novel is an indictment of rape culture and explores with bold honesty the deepest questions about teen girls and sexuality.
When the one teacher who really understood her — Mrs. With the help of an insightful therapist, Sparrow finally reveals the truth of her inner life. Meg hates being alone, but her ADHD keeps pushing people away. It offers an intimate glimpse into the causes and devastating impact of Latino gang violence, both in the U. She gets thrown out of school. The only thing going right for Ava is her job at Magic Kebab.
Which is where she meets Gideon, a poet and collector of vinyl records with an aversion to social media. He lives in his head. She lives in her grief. The only people who can help them move on with their lives are each other. As she drifts further away from her family and closer to her dream of being sponsored, a terrible accident threatens any semblance of peace and happiness she has left.
Instead of closing herself off to the people she loves, Emmy must learn to rely on those she has pushed away. Until a new family moves in. The problem, she fears, is her mind. It might not be suitably broad because she had to leave school to take care of little Jer. In this rough-and-tumble frontier town, Jane is going to need every bit of that broad mind and sturdy constitution—not to mention a good sense of humor and a stubborn streak a mile wide.
Ricky is trained, armed, and sent to battle government troops alongside his brutal kidnappers, but over his two and a half years of enslavement, he never stops dreaming of escape. Here also is the story, set twenty years later, of a fictional character named Samuel, a boy deathly afraid of trusting anyone ever again, and representative of the thousands of child soldiers Ricky has helped rehabilitate as founder of the internationally acclaimed charity Friends of Orphans.
Not just because it seems like her best friend has found a newer, blonder best friend. Or that her dad is the new stay-at-home parent. She has realized that she has seventeen hairs that have formed a mustache on her upper lip. Debut author Wientge tackles the uncomfortable—but all too relatable—subject of female body hair and self-esteem with this sweet and charming novel in the tradition of Judy Blume.
Chub sets off to bring down an evil empire—and inadvertently become the least likely hero of Alanmoore Middle School. When her parents take a job running Stagecoach Pass, a rundown western theme park in Arizona, Aven moves with them across the country. She bonds with Connor, a classmate who also feels isolated because of his own disability, and they discover a room at Stagecoach Pass that holds secrets.
Graphic Novels ab ca. But something eerie is happening in town, leaving the local afterlife unsettled. Blue has to find a way to protect Hamal, even if it means… leaving him. Reborn as a boy named Soupy, she meets Remy -Ramshackle- Smith, a hobo who takes her under his wing. Set in , this is the story of two misfits with no place to call home, who build a relationship during a train hopping journey toward the sunny promise of California. But one day, Adrienne starts hanging out with Jen, the most popular girl and leader of a circle of friends called The Group.
A collection of essays, interviews and accounts on what it is to be a woman in the 21st century. Keep telling your stories, and tell them loud. Jerkins is only in her twenties, but she has already established herself as an insightful, brutally honest writer. Be inspired to find your own path to feminism. Queeren Figuren? Hier hatte er den vielen Analphabeten ihre Post vorgelesen. Erst im Krankenhaus kommt Rashad wieder zu sich. Quinn ist schockiert. Ist sein Freund, der Polizist, ein Rassist? All Sunny wants to do is be able to play football and get through another day of school without being bullied.
But once she befriends Orlu and Chichi, Sunny is plunged in to the world of the Leopard People, where your worst defect becomes your greatest asset. Their mission is to track down Black Hat Otokoto, the man responsible for kidnapping and maiming children. Hilfreiche Bauern verstecken die beiden Schwestern in einer kleinen Kammer auf dem Dachboden.
Fast drei Jahre lang leben sie dort in drangvoller Enge und sehnen sich nach frischer Luft und Bewegung. Als Witwe hat sie in der indischen Gesellschaft jede Existenzberechtigung verloren und wird von der Schwiegermutter versklavt. Ganz unten angekommen, findet sie Hilfe und einen Ansatz zu einem weitgehend selbstbestimmten Leben. Ob das Blau des Himmels oder der Glanz in den Augen des anderen, obwohl es die aus Japan stammende Familie im Amerika der er Jahre alles andere als leicht hat. Doch Natasha soll noch am selben Abend abgeschoben werden.
Bisher wissen nur seine Freunde Essie und Felix Bescheid, die bedingungslos zu ihm halten und mit denen er jede Peinlichkeit weglachen kann. Und warum fasziniert ihn der geheimnisvolle Neue in der Schule so sehr? Ziel der beiden ist das Meer, an das Long Danzi einen wertvollen und geheimnisvollen Drachenstein bringen will. Salamanca besucht alle Orte, die auch ihre Mutter besucht hat. The crowds that come to the circus see a lively animal who plays soccer and balances on milk bottles, but Hastin sees Nandita, a sweet elephant and his best friend.
Hastin knows that the only way they will both survive is if he can find a way for them to escape. At least the dumplings are delicious. As the month passes by, Pacy eats chicken feet by accident! She desperately wants to fit in and be like everyone else, but instead she is ridiculed and made to feel different because she is Japanese. But when Aunt Waka comes to visit, she teaches Rinko the importance of her Japanese heritage, and the value of her own strengths and dreams.
There is an odd feeling around the house; while outside, in the wild and untamed forest, a mysterious animal moves through the shadows. Hiroshi, likewise, must give up his home and his hopes of winning the rokkaku kite-fighting championship with Grandfather. Faced with language barriers, culture clashes and cousin rivalry, Skye and Hiroshi have a rocky start.
But a greater shared loss brings them together. They learn to communicate, not only through language, but through a common heritage and sense of family honor. At the rokkaku contest at the annual Washington Cherry Blossom Festival, Hiroshi and Skye must work as a team in order to compete with the best.
When nine-year-old Jess arrives in Thailand and accidentally breaks a special family treasure, it seems to only get worse. At thirteen, Negi yearns for her own bed, privacy, and a life with her father, who remains in Puerto Rico. When Negi defies her mother by going on a series of hilarious dates, she finds that independence brings its own set of challenges. Eine Autobiografie, kein Jugendbuch. Her mother says she has to take every opportunity. She accepted a scholarship to a mostly-white private school and even Saturday morning test prep opportunities.
But some opportunities feel more demeaning than helpful. Friendships, race, privilege, identity—this compelling and thoughtful story explores the issues young women face. Can Teenie get her act together in time to save her friendship with Cherise and save herself from a potentially dangerous relationship? Sharon G. Miss Saunders is tough, and through this, Maleeka learns to stand up to tough-talking Charlese. Shelia P. Tough because Daddy is away with the army fighting in Iraq. Joseph struggles to keep Mama clean while trying to make new friends and join the school tennis team.
The judge gave him a year in a group home—said he had to write in a journal so some counselor could try to figure out how he thinks. The judge had no idea that he actually did Miguel a favor. Fearing he stole it, she too keeps it secret. She learns it comes from the distant colonized planet of Malem, where her father caught the illness that eventually killed him. When she is training to be a translator, she is co-opted into travelling to Malem. But how will she find out who that is when no one can know that she, an off-worlder, has a Malemese diamond? Her world is rocked when a year-old African-American boy, Emmett Till, is killed for allegedly whistling at a white woman.
In the hot summer of , twelve-year-old Patsy takes care of her three younger sisters. After boarding the first-class train car at Michigan Central Station in Detroit and riding comfortably to Cincinnati, Patsy is shocked when her family is led from their seats to change cars. As summer wears on, Patsy must find a way to understand her experience in the colored car and also deal with the more subtle injustices that her family faces in Detroit.
Stevie is a bookworm, yet she longs to fit in with the cool crowd. With the assassination of Dr. But what starts as a series of angry grumbles soon turns to brutality as Anniston residents show just how deep their racism runs. Sarah Dunbar is one of the first black students to attend the previously all-white Jefferson High School. An honors student at her old school, she is put into remedial classes, spit on and tormented daily.
She has been taught all her life that the races should be kept separate but equal. Forced to work together on a school project, Sarah and Linda must confront harsh truths about race, power and how they really feel about one another. All Sunny knows is that people from up north are coming to help people register to vote. And things get even trickier when Sunny and her brother are caught sneaking into the local swimming pool—where they bump into a mystery boy whose life is going to become tangled up in theirs.
Following their cultural tradition, they will plan an arranged marriage for her. And until then, dating—even friendship with a boy—is forbidden. When Naila breaks their rule by falling in love with Saif, her parents are livid. Convinced she has forgotten who she truly is, they travel to Pakistan to visit relatives and explore their roots.
Despite her greatest efforts, Naila is aghast to find herself cut off from everything and everyone she once knew. Her only hope of escape is Saif. Emily M. Cam is soon forced to move in with her conservative aunt Ruth and her well-intentioned but hopelessly old-fashioned grandmother. Survival in Miles City, Montana, means blending in. Then Coley Taylor moves to town. Beautiful, pickup-driving Coley is a perfect cowgirl with the perfect boyfriend to match. She and Cam forge an unexpected and intense friendship — one that seems to leave room for something more to emerge.
Then, Tommy vanished. His older brother Bosten is always there to defend Stick. Molly knows that promises are often broken, so she hatches a plan to bring her mother home: Win the Lakeville Middle School Slam Poetry Contest. But as time goes on, writing and reciting slam poetry become harder. Who cares about walking when you live to run? As she struggles to cope with crutches and a first cyborg-like prosthetic, Jessica feels oddly both in the spotlight and invisible.
But Helen Keller needed more than a teacher. And if anyone was a match for Helen, it was the girl they used to call Miss Spitfire. Everything changes when Joey meets Dr. Charles Mansell and his baby chimpanzee, Sukari. Her new friends use sign language to communicate, and Joey secretly begins to learn to sign.
Als Ben im Nachlass seiner Mutter einen geheimen Hinweis entdeckt und Rose sich eine einmalige Gelegenheit zur Flucht bietet, ergreifen die beiden Kinder die Chance und riskieren alles, um das zu finden, was sie so sehr vermissen: Freundschaft, Liebe und Geborgenheit. Denn Ali ist stark, fair und unbesiegbar. Zusammen mit seinem ebenfalls krebskranken Freund Felix erstellt er eine Liste mit Dingen, die er unbedingt noch erleben will: einen Weltrekord aufstellen.
Teenager sein. In einem Luftschiff fahren. Ihm ist unbegreiflich, wie der Rundfunk seine Gedichte ablehnen kann. Adrian sieht sich als missverstandener Intellektueller und allein gelassen im Kampf gegen eine uneinsichtige, unsensible Umwelt. Darauf stehen drei Adressen.
Tu endlich was! Doch als mit Ruby, dem Elefantenbaby, eine neue Attraktion in die Mall kommt, wird Ivan aus seiner Lethargie gerissen. Ari nicht. Ari fallen Worte schwer und er leidet an Selbstzweifeln. Dante geht auf in Poesie und Kunst. Ari und Dante werden Freunde. Wie es ist, so richtig reiche Eltern zu haben wie die Scheffel-Reibachs? Eines Tages macht er eine schockierende Entdeckung: Er ist unsichtbar!
Fleur hat sich ihn ausgedacht! Lo, und reist in einem schwebenden Auto quer durch die USA. Erst in letzter Sekunde wird das Schreck-Dou mal wieder vom reichlich aufgeblasenen Superhelden Captain Saubermann gestoppt. Joshua steht vor der Frage: Superschurke oder doch lieber Held? So ist er gezwungen, sich zu verstecken. Luke ist beeindruckt von der Tatkraft und der Lebenslust, die Jen aufbringt. Strengthened by an unexpected friendship and a caring teacher who gives her a chance to step into the spotlight, Grayson might finally have the tools to let her inner light shine.
He loves pitching for his baseball team, working on his graphic novel, and hanging out with his best friend, Josh. But Shane is keeping something private, something that might make a difference to his teammates, to Josh, and to his new crush, Madeline. Als die Nazis ihn nach seiner Flucht aus dem Ghetto entdecken, wird er im Traum auf wundersame Weise vom Helden aus seinem Lieblingsbuch gerettet.
Sofort herrscht Chaos: Ein Unfall? Ein Anschlag? Was sollen sie selbst tun? With minimal food to eat and harsh living conditions threatening his health, Jack manages to survive by thinking of his family. Noch keine deutschsprachige Ausgabe, Poignant and comlex, these two characters will give readers glimpse into perhaps the most tumultuous time in modern American history. But then Auntie Snowdrop gives Michael a medal, followed by a photograph, which begin to reveal a hidden history. A story of love and loss.
Nick is stranded on the plantation, forced to work as a servant to the new rulers. As life in the village grows more dangerous for Nick and his young friend, Mya, they plan their daring escape. Und: Es gibt bessere 2. Nothing, that is, until his eleventh birthday. But one day, other tower blocks on the estate start falling down around them and strange, menacing plants begin to appear. His best friend Tommy abandoned him. One day, he sees a creature that looks kind of like a large dog, or maybe a small boar.
And as he watches it, he realizes it eats plastic. Only plastic. He has never been the tallest. Or the best at gym. He was a star on his cricket team. But when his father suddenly sends the family to live with their aunt and uncle in America, nothing is familiar. While Bilal tries to keep up with his cousin Jalaal by joining a baseball league and practicing his English, he wonders when his father will join the family in Virginia. But playing baseball means navigating relationships with the guys, and with Jordan, the only girl on the team—the player no one but Bilal wants to be friends with.
Enlisting the aid of the Lost Boys, Jax and his friends battle fairy tale villains to see who can get their hand, or their hook, on it first. Hauptfigur; noch keine deutschsprachige Ausgabe, Under the tutelage of a lizard guide named Henrietta Peel and an aeronaut Vijay, the Farah and her friends battle camel spiders, red scorpions, grease monkeys, and sand cats. Hauptfigur, noch keine deutschsprachige Ausgabe, The stray dog was ugly, and a thieving rascal, too. But he sure was clever, and a smart dog could be a big help on the wild Texas frontier, especially with Papa away on a long cattle drive up to Abilene.
But can Travis do the same for Old Yeller? His father, unable to accept Habo, abandons the family; his mother can scarcely look at him. His brothers are cruel and the other children never invite him to play. Only his sister Asu loves him well. Then, the family is forced from their small Tanzanian village. Seeking refuge in Mwanza, Habo and his family journey across the Serengeti. His aunt is glad to open her home until she sees Habo for the first time, and then she is only afraid. Suddenly, Habo has a new word for himself: Albino.
But they hunt Albinos in Mwanza because Albino body parts are thought to bring good luck. And soon Habo is being hunted by a fearsome man with a machete. Kaum ist sie aus dem turbulenten Iran in Europa angekommen, verwandelt sich das neugierige Kind im Schnelldurchlauf in eine Frau. Was macht das mit dem Sohn? Marie-Louise scheint all das zuzufliegen, wonach Annika sich sehnt: Freunde, Liebhaber, Geselligkeit. Sein Traum vom Schriftstellerleben hatte anders ausgesehen.
Sein ehemaliger Kontrahent Sully verheimlicht seine schwere Krankheit. Jeder Staat, den sie durchquert, hat andere Gesetze, andere Gefahren. Wartet am Ende wirklich die Freiheit? Colson Whiteheads Roman ist eine virtuose Abrechnung damit, was es bedeutete und immer noch bedeutet, schwarz zu sein in Amerika. Addie, eine Witwe von 70 Jahren, klingelt bei ihrem Nachbarn Louis, der seit dem Tod seiner Frau ebenfalls allein lebt.
Erst als sie sich verliebt, wagt sie sich zaghaft aus ihrem Schneckenhaus — und lernt dabei nicht nur die Welt, sondern auch sich selbst noch einmal neu kennen.